Mount Vernon Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center

Vegetable Research and Extension

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Grain

General Production

Growing Wheat in Western Washington. November 2009. Carol Miles, Stephen S. Jones, Jonathan Roozen, Kevin Murphy, and Xianming Chen. Wheat has been grown in western Washington since settlement began in the mid 1800’s. This manual provides information on growing wheat in western Washington including background information and detailed instructions on wheat varieties, soil management, planting, harvesting, drying, storage, and pest management.

Small-Scale Grain Raising: An Organic Guide to Growing, Processing, and Using Nutritious Whole Grains for Home Gardeners, and Local Farmers. Gene Logsdon. 2008. This recently updated 2nd edition covers common and uncommon grain production as well as feeding grain to animals.

Spring Barley Production Guide. 2003. Field selection, varieties, seeding, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, and more. Color photographs. Univ. of Idaho. 59 pp. (Bulletin 742) pdf

Seed Treatments for Small Grain Cereals. February 2002. This publication explains why seed treatment is important, what kinds of treatment compounds are available, and how they work. (EM8797)

Crop Profile for Barley in Washington. April 2001. General production information for spring and winter barley including weed control, and common diseases and insects and their control. 20 pp. (MISC0367E)

Early Growth and Development of Cereals. September 1993. Describes the growth process from seed to mature plant. Discusses root systems, effects of stress, and the principles of heat-driven development including “growing degree-day” (GDD) calculations. Describes the relation between GDD and wheat plant development and the relationships of leaf and tiller production. (EM 8542) pdf

Fertilization and Soil Nutrient Management

Winter Wheat: in Continuous Cropping Systems (High Precipitation Zone). April 2007. Fertilizer guide from Oregon State University Extension Service

Winter Wheat: Western Oregon – west of Cascades. January 2000. Fertilizer guide from Oregon State University Extension Service

Spring Grains: Western Oregon: West of the Cascades Fertilizer Guide. January 2000. Outlines suggested fertilizer amounts and application methods based on existing soil conditions. (FG 8-E)

Fertilizer Guide: Winter Wheat (Soft White), Central Washington, Irrigated. February 1988. Fertilizer guide from Washington State University Extension Service that can be purchased from this website (SKU EB1487)

Fertilizer Guide: Winter Wheat and Barley for Western Washington. July 1977. Fertilizer guide from Washington State University Extension Service that can be purchased from this website. (FG0017)

Fertilizer Guide: Spring Wheat, Barley and Oats for Western Washington. July 1977. (FG0048)

Diseases and Pests

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) – Take-all. January 2007. An online guide to plant disease control from Oregon State University Extension Service

Controlling Root and Crown Diseases of Small Grain Cereals. February 2002. This publication is designed specifically for wheat and barley producers using direct-seed technologies in advanced resource-conservation systems. However, most of the principles also apply to conventional tillage systems involving various styles of plows and disks as primary tillage implements. (EM 8798)

Dwarf Bunt (Stinking Smut) of Winter Wheat. July 1998. A crop protection fact sheet from the government of British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands

Oregon Cover Crops: Barley, Oats, Triticale, and Wheat. January 1998. Explains cereal grains and offer management practices for cereal grain and pest interaction. (EM 8692) pdf

Barley Stripe Rust. November 1997. Closely related to wheat stripe, this fungus produces stripes of yellow rust between leaf veins of barley. 4 pages. (EB1839)

Viral Diseases of Barley. June 1996. Causes, symptoms, hosts and control of viral diseases that affect barley, wheat, and oats. Including barley yellow dwarf, barley stripe mosaic, and barley yellow streak mosaic. Supplemented with color photographs. 8 pages. (PNW0493)

Dwarf Bunt of Winter Wheat in the Northwest. 1995. A link to an online catalog from the University of Idaho

Fall Pest Problems of Winter Wheat. 1995. An extension bulletin from the University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System

Combatting take-all of winter wheat in western Oregon. January 1993. A guide to managing take-all from Oregon State University Extension Service

Varieties for Washington State

2009 Washington Preferred Spring Wheat Varieties 2009. A guide to spring wheat varieties for Washington State provided by the Washington Wheat Commission

2009 Washington Preferred Winter Wheat Varieties. 2009 A guide to winter wheat varieties for Washington State provided by the Washington Wheat Commission

WSU Publications

An Economic Comparison of No-till Annual Rotations to Conventional Winter Wheat-Fallow in Adams County, WA 2005. August 2005. Available as a free download from this Washington State University Extension Service website. 56 pages. (EB1997E)

2003 Enterprise Budgets for Spring Barley, Spring Wheat and Winter Wheat Using Direct Seeding Tillage Practices, Lincoln County, Washington. September 2003. Projected costs and returns for spring barley, spring wheat and winter wheat grown under a three-year rotation using direct seeding tillage practices in Lincoln County, Washington. 29 pages. Available as a free download from this Washington State University Extension Service website.(EB1963E)

An Economic Comparison of No-Till Spring Wheat and Oilseed Rotations to Conventional Winter Wheat-Fallow in Adams County, WA, 2002. March 2003. A Farm Business Management Report available as a free download from this Washington State University Extension Service website. 36 pages. (EB1956E)

Economic Case Studies of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho No-Till Farmers Growing Wheat, Barley, Lentils, and Peas in the 19–22 Inch Precipitation Zone. November 1999. Production costs, cultural practices, and profitability of dryland farming systems. Available as a free download or can be purchased from this Washington State University Extension Service website. 52 pages. (EB1886)

Buy, Lease, or Rent That New Reduced Tillage Grain Drill? November 1998. This publication provides a tool to analyze the drill financing decision. Available as a free download or can be purchased from this Washington State University Extension Service website. 15 pages. (EB1879)

An Economic Analysis of Alternative Cereal Grain Crop Rotations: The Wilke Farm Experience. March 1998. This publication presents an economic analysis of three rotations for the eastern Washington area. Available as a free download or can be purchased from this Washington State University Extension Service website. 43 pages. (EB1869)

Fertilizer Management for Dryland Cereal Production and Groundwater Protection. August 1990. Fertilizer guide from Washington State University Extension Service that can be purchased from this website. 4 pages. (EB1569)

Seed Sources

The document Grain Seed Sources is a downloadable list of seed sources in the U.S. and Canada, showing types of grain seeds available. There is also a companion list of contact information for the listed seed sources.

These lists are designed to help users find grain seed sources. They do not represent a complete list of sources. We do not endorse any of these businesses nor do we detract from any business not listed. Our web site provides links to external sites for the convenience of users. These external sites are not managed by WSU extension. Furthermore, WSU Extension does not review, control or take responsibility for the content of these sites, nor do these sites implicitly or explicitly represent official positions and policies of WSU Extension.

Feed

Sticky Droppings: A feed-related poultry problem. October 2009. Cereal grains and barley in particular can cause sticky droppings as well as limited nutrient uptake and poor growth in poultry. Washington State University FS002E.

Barley for Beef Cattle. December 2006. Barley is an important energy source for livestock. This guide outlines factors that can affect cattle performance when fed barley and important characteristics for choosing high quality feed barley for cattle. (CL332)

Wheat: Its Nutritive Value for Beef Cattle. December 2006. Wheat is an excellent energy source for most livestock. However the economics must be right for most growers to include it as part of a feed ration. Cattle Producer’s Library. (CL365).

Making Your Own Poultry Feeds. How to feed poultry without using commercial feeds. Harvey and Ellen Ussery, The Modern Homestead. August/September 2006 issue Backyard Poultry Magazine. (Note: Ussery’s have farmed for 24 years at “Boxwood” and Harvey writes for three homesteading magazines: Backyard Poultry, Countryside & Small Stock Journal, and Mother Earth News)

Organic Livestock Feed Suppliers. Anne Fanatico, NCAT Agriculture Specialist. August 2006. A resource list for organic livestock producers to locate sources of organic formulated feed rations or feed ingredients. Search by state, type of product, ingredient, or distributor. Businesses included in this list are self-identified &nadash; if you are a supplier of organic feed or know of a supplier, please add to the list.

Pastured-Raised Poultry Nutrition. Jeff Mattocks, Poultry and Livestock Nutritionist, The Fertrell Company, Prepared for Heifer International, November 2002. 35 pages. Includes information regarding common and uncommon feed ingredients, milling, commercial feeds, feeding issues, fundamental formulation basics, and a guide to formulating your own ration. Targeted towards small-scale producers of pasture poultry.

Cow-Calf Management Guide & Cattle Producer’s Library. January 2002. An on-line guide including nutrition, range and pasture, and all other aspects of beef calf and cattle production. Written and compiled by a committee of western states extension animal scientists.

Evaluating Grain for Livestock. November 1993. Lists grain characteristics to evaluate and determine the feed value of a grain. (FS-309) (pdf)



Many farmers soak grain prior to feeding it to livestock, particularly poultry. There is little science-based information regarding this practice, however we recognize that it is of interest to many farmers. The following are links regarding this practice. These links are provided as a service to farmers and do not endorse the sources or information or detract from any sources not listed.

Sprouted Wheat for Feeding Cattle. Rainfall can cause problems with wheat harvest, including sprouting in the head. Sprouted grain is unsuitable for use in the milling, brewing, and food industries. However, sprouted grain can be fed to livestock. Ted McCollum, Extension Beef Cattle Specialist, Texas Cooperative Extension-Texas A&M System, Amarillo, TX. 2007.

Making Your Own Poultry Feeds. Table 5: Experimental Layer Mix (Winter) with Sprouts Harvey and Ellen Ussery, The Modern Homestead. (Note: Ussery’s have farmed for 24 years at “Boxwood” and Harvey writes for three homesteading magazines: Backyard Poultry, Countryside & Small Stock Journal, and Mother Earth News). August/September 2006.

What to Do with Sprouted Grains? Feeding trials with beef cattle, pigs and poultry showed that sprouting had no effect on feed value. It is advisable to blend sprouted grains in finishing rations; sprouted grains should be fed by weight and not by volume. Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. Nutrition Update Volume 13 No.3, February 2003

Feeding Value of Sprouted Wheat for Poultry. Feeding value of wheat for young poultry may be enhanced by a moderate degree of sprouting. Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre in Agassiz, B.C. Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. 2002.

Feeding Value of Sprouted Grains. Adverse weather conditions can cause grain to sprout prior to harvest, making it unsuitable for milling, brewing, and food industries. Sprouted grain can be fed to livestock, however there is limited information on its feeding value. Research was conducted to evaluate feeding value with swine and poultry at North Dakota State University. Greg Lardy, Beef Cattle Specialist, NDSU. AS-647, revised September 1999.

Sprouting to Enhance Poultry Feeds. Description of the Ussery farm’s methods of feeding chickens on sprouted small grains and (sometimes) peas. Harvey and Ellen Ussery, The Modern Homestead. (Note: Ussery’s have farmed for 24 years at “Boxwood” and Harvey writes for three homesteading magazines: Backyard Poultry, Countryside & Small Stock Journal, and Mother Earth News)

Our pages provide links to external sites for the convenience of users. WSU Extension does not manage these external sites, nor does Extension review, control, or take responsibility for the content of these sites. These external sites do not implicitly or explicitly represent official positions and policies of WSU Extension.

WSU Mount Vernon NWREC, 16650 State Route 536, Mount Vernon, WA 98273-4768 USA, 360-848-6150, FAX 360-848-6159, Contact Us